# Callbacks¶

Callback is an interface to do everything else besides the training iterations.

Apart from the actual training iterations that minimize the cost, you almost surely would like to do something else. There are several places where you might want to do something else:

• Before the training has started (e.g. initialize the saver, dump the graph)

• Along with each training iteration (e.g. run some other operations in the graph)

• Between training iterations (e.g. update the progress bar, update hyperparameters)

• Between epochs (e.g. save the model, run some validation)

• After the training (e.g. send the model somewhere, send a message to your phone)

People normally would write the training loop together with these extra features. This makes the loop lengthy, and the code for the same feature probably get separated (imagine a feature which needs initialization in the beginning and then some actual work between iterations).

By writing callbacks to implement what to do at each place, tensorpack trainers will call the callbacks at the proper time. Therefore these features can be reused with one single line, as long as you are using tensorpack trainers.

For example, here are some useful callbacks I used during model development:

callbacks=[
# save the model every epoch
ModelSaver(),
# backup the model with best validation error
MinSaver('val-error-top1'),
# run inference on another Dataflow every epoch, compute classification error and log to monitors
InferenceRunner(dataset_val, [
ClassificationError('wrong-top1', 'val-error-top1'),
ClassificationError('wrong-top5', 'val-error-top5')]),
# schedule the learning rate based on epoch number
ScheduledHyperParamSetter('learning_rate',
[(30, 1e-2), (60, 1e-3), (85, 1e-4), (95, 1e-5)]),
# can manually change the learning rate through a file, without interrupting training
HumanHyperParamSetter('learning_rate'),
# send validation error to my phone through pushbullet
SendStat('curl -u your_id_xxx: https://api.pushbullet.com/v2/pushes \\
-d type=note -d title="validation error" \\
-d body={val-error-top1} > /dev/null 2>&1',
'val-error-top1'),
# record GPU utilization during training
GPUUtilizationTracker(),
# touch a file to pause the training and start a debug shell, to observe what's going on
InjectShell(shell='ipython'),
# estimate time until completion
EstimatedTimeLeft()
] + [    # these callbacks are enabled by default already, though you can customize them
# maintain those moving average summaries defined in the model (e.g. training loss, training error)
MovingAverageSummary(),
# draw a progress bar
ProgressBar(),
# run tf.summary.merge_all every epoch and log to monitors
MergeAllSummaries(),
# run ops in GraphKeys.UPDATE_OPS collection along with training, if any
RunUpdateOps(),
],
monitors=[        # monitors are a special kind of callbacks. these are also enabled by default
# write everything to tensorboard
TFEventWriter(),
# write all scalar data to a json file, for easy parsing
JSONWriter(),
# print all scalar data every epoch (can be configured differently)
ScalarPrinter(),
]


You can see from the above snippet, that callbacks cover every detail of training, from graph operations to the progress bar. This means you can customize every part of the training to your preference, e.g. display something different in the progress bar, evaluate part of the summaries at a different frequency, etc. Similar concepts also exists in other frameworks, such as Keras callbacks, or tf.train.SessionRunHook. But tensorpack callbacks have more functionalities in design, and can achieve much more features, as you can see above.

These features are not always necessary, but think about how messy the main loop would look like if you were to write these logic together with the loops, and how easy your life will be if you could enable these features with just one line when you need them.

See list of callbacks for a long list of tensorpack builtin callbacks. See Write a callback for details on how callbacks work, what they can do, and how to write them.